Ejercicios para Controlar el Déficit de Atención en Niños.

Técnicas para tratar el trastorno por déficit de atención en niños

Una de las técnicas es modificar y compensar en lo posible, esas conductas típicas y recurrentes que tienen efectos negativos en el día a día del niño y sus padres.

A través de estos ejercicios claves que te presentamos podrás reducir en el niño la inquietud motriz y la impulsividad, que suelen ser las principales fuentes del problema, a través del aumento de su atención y el aumento de su capacidad cerebral.

El principal objetivo de los ejercicios es cambiar los hábitos, conductas y actitudes negativas que el niño tiene ante ciertas situaciones y enseñarle a su mente nuevas formas de reaccionar ante esa situación.

Estos ejercicios son ideales para controlar el déficit de atención en niños de preescolar y de primaria:

1. Realizar Rompecabezas

Es una dinámica fácil de ejecutar y que además mantendrá a tu hijo concentrado y lo ayudará a desarrollar su inteligencia espacial: los rompecabezas, atraen la atención del niño desde principio a fin, puede ser que se levante un par de veces, pero luego regresará para terminar lo que en algún momento empezó.

Los rompecabezas contribuirán a solucionar los problemas de atención y mejorar la memoria del niño.

2. Lectura de cuentos

Tal vez las dinámicas más divertidas son las que mantienen la atención del niño, pero también es necesario el desarrollo de su capacidad de concentración para su día a día en el colegio, por ejemplo; y leer un cuento de noche puede ser una buena alternativa.

Es importante que tú como padre contribuyas en esta tarea y después puedas hablar con él un poco sobre la historia. Una buena idea sería hacerlo también en la mañana.

3. Separar elementos

Otra excelente dinámica es la separación de elementos, para ello debes reunir una cantidad de objetos con características diferentes: color, tamaño y forma.

La tarea que tiene el niño es la de agrupar y clasificar los objetos presentados según sus características comunes. Esto ayuda a que los niños presten atención a cada una de las características de los grupos de objetos y desarrollen su concentración, destreza y salud mental.

4. Laberinto

Uno de las ejercicios para niños con tda o tdah que puedes realizar en casa es un laberinto con cuerdas que se enreden por distintas habitaciones de la casa y que conduzca a una bolsa de dulces o a un premio. Al abandonar la cuerda o al distraerse, será penalizado con un caramelo menos.

En esta dinámica se pueden divertir muchísimo y, además pasar una tarde diferente. Si tu hijo es más grande puedes aplicar la técnica del laberinto, pero utilizando papel y lápiz.

5. Colorear sin espacios

Si no tienes tanto tiempo como para planear la dinámica del laberinto, otra opción es pedirle a tu hijo que coloree una hoja sin dejar espacios en blanco.

Puedes empezar aplicando el ejercicio con una hoja tamaño carta e ir aumentando de tamaño y, de la misma manera, podrá ser dos veces por semana, pero lo recomendable es que se realice cotidianamente. Un adulto debe supervisar el ejercicio porque el niño tenderá a desistir en finalizar el trabajo.

6. Inteligencia espacial

Los ejercicios de inteligencia espacial son sumamente positivos para ejercitar la memoria y capacidad de concentración de tu hijo. A partir de imágenes con símbolos, colores, relojes, formas abstractas, letras o números que sigan un patrón determinado, el niño deberá ordenar las figuras de acuerdo con la secuencia que vienen llevando.

7. Otras dinámicas para la atención para realizar en casa

En casa se pueden realizar muchas dinámicas para el desarrollo de las habilidades del pensamiento de tu hijo, como por ejemplo: ubica varios elementos en un sitio, en un orden determinado, luego varía la colocación para que él vuelva a organizarlos en el orden estipulado.

Otro ejercicio podría ser, nombrar varios objetos y posteriormente guardarlos en una caja, para que el niño repita el nombre de todos los objetos que están es su interior. Realmente puedes hacer muchos ejercicios con tu hijo, todo depende de tu creatividad e iniciativa, recuerda que esas tareas ayudan a potenciar la capacidad de atención de tu hijo.

Desde siempre se ha dicho que el apoyo de los padres es muy importante, pero no imprescindible; sin embargo, en este caso donde la familia tenga un niño con déficit de atención, este miembro del hogar necesita la mayor supervisión posible y un apoyo incondicional que solo pueden ofrecer padre y madre.

También puedes realizar con tu niño mapas conceptuales o mentales, este tipo de herramientas pueden resultar efectivas para controlar el déficit de atención que pueda tener tu niño durante el momento de estudio debido a que su elaboración requiere concentración y adicionalmente, pueden fomentar la creatividad y la organización en tu niño/a. Visita nuestra de mapas conceptuales y mentales para aprender más sobre este tema.

En niños con déficit de atención, ten precaución con:

Excesiva Televisión: Estudios especializados han revelado que la violencia, el exceso de publicidad y programas no educativos que se trasmiten por la tv, pueden tener un impacto negativo en el niño, puesto que el cerebro de éste no cuenta con suficientes sustancias que le ayudan a bloquear y seleccionar el contenido que ve, por tanto todo lo que observa en la televisión es grabado en su memoria.

Videojuegos: Investigaciones demuestran que éstos reducen la línea base de la actividad del cerebro, lo que hace que el niño esté hiper-enfocado en esta actividad, lo que puede ocasionar adicciones y que el niño no tenga límites razonables entre la realidad y lo virtual.

Además, estos momentos del día son pasivos y le quitan tiempo al niño para aprender habilidades y desarrollarse de una forma positiva en cuanto al TDA. Efectivamente, la tv y los videojuegos pueden dificultarle al niño la mejora de su aprendizaje y las habilidades sociales a la vez que trunca el desarrollo de su capacidad cerebral.

Dinámicas positivas para el desarrollo del niño con déficit de atención:

  • Los deportes en equipo son una de las principales dinámicas que ayudarán a tu hijo, como el basquetbol, beisbol, futbol, vóleibol y cualquier otro deporte en el que el niño pueda compartir con otros de su edad, tomar modelos de comportamiento y aprender a socializar mejor. Este aprendizaje resulta importante para niños con problemas de conducta.
  • También puede realizar otros deportes como el tenis, que aunque no se juega en equipo es un deporte que necesita de mucha concentración.
  • Son recomendados también el Karate o Tae Kwon Do, porque tienen como guía a un instructor y deben seguir ciertas instrucciones que le harán mantener la atención, control físico y mental y mucha concentración.
  • Expertos también recomiendan que el niño con TDA practique teatro, porque le permite representar varios personajes y es una excelente salida para la creatividad y la imaginación del infante.
  • También puede realizar actividades como natación y clases de arte o música.

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